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Bece results for 2011

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Texas Department of Transportation P.O.Box 5051 Austin, Texas 78763

Center for Transportation Infrastructure Systems The University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX 79968 (915) 747-6925

CHNICAL REPORT STANDARD TITLE PAGE1.Report No.
TX-0-4358-2

2.Government Accession No.3.

Recipient's Catalog No.5.Report Date

November 2005 4.Title and SubtitleImpact of Aggregate Gradation on Base Material Performance 6.Performing Organization Code7.

Author(s)J.A.Gandara, A.

Kancherla, G.Alvarado, S.

Nazarian, T.Scullion 8.Performing Organization Report No.Research Report TX-1502-2 10.Work Unit No.

9.Performing Organization Name and AddressCenter for Transportation Infrastructure Systems The University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, Texas 79968-0516 11.

Contract or Grant No.Study No.0-4358 13.

Type of Report and Period CoveredInterim Report Sept.1s, 2002

December.31, 2003 12.Sponsoring Agency Name and AddressTexas Department of Transportation
P.O.Box 5051 Austin, Texas 78763 14.Sponsoring Agency Code15.Supplementary NotesResearch Performed in Cooperation with TxDOT and FHWA under Project entitled Materials, Specifications, and Construction Techniques for

High Performance Flexible Bases 16.AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the engineering properties of two local unbound granular materials, with a focus on the gradation and especially the percentage of fines (aggregate passing the No.200 sieve).

Two materials were obtained from two local quarries for this purpose.

The percentage of fines was varied in these mixtures.

Each mixture was then put through a regime of tests to determine the effects that the gradation and fines content had on their properties.

The tests used included moisture-density relationships, moisture susceptibility, triaxial tests, permanent deformation, and resilient modulus tests.

The research approach, testing procedure, and results are presented and compared.

From the tests performed it was found that increases in the amount of fines have a large impact on the engineering properties of the base materials.

However, the results also showed that the percentage of fines used in the base material mixtures had a limit.

This limit was found to be approximately 10%.

In the range of 5 to 10% fines the base is less moisture susceptible, has higher compressive strength and a higher resilient modulus value.Texas is the only DOT in the United States which does not control the -200 fraction of its flexible bases.

It is not uncommon to find bases with between 20 and 25% passing the -200 sieve.

The laboratory data presented in this study would suggest that TxDOT should conduct field investigations to determine if the low fines bases lead to improved field performance.

17.Key WordsBase, performance, fine content, resilient modulus, permanent deformation

18.Distribution StatementNo restrictions.

This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161 19.

Security Classif.(of this report) Unclassified
20.

Security Classif.

(of this page)Unclassified 21.No.of Pages

Anuroopa Kancherla, BECE Materials, Specifications, and Construction Techniques for Texas Department of Transportation The contents of this report reflect the view of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein.

The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Texas Department of Transportation.

This report does not constitute a The material contained in this report is experimental in nature and is published for informational purposes only.

Any discrepancies with official views or policies of the Texas Department of Transportation should be discussed with the appropriate Austin Division prior to implementation Jaime Gandara, B.S., C.E.

Gisel Alvarado, B.S., C.E.Tom Scullion, BSCE, PE The successful progress of this project could not have happened without the help and input of many TxDOT personnel.

The authors acknowledge Caroline Herrera and Mike Arellano from TxDOT.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nd performance of two local unbound granular materials, with a focus on ly the percentage of fines (aggregate passing the No.200 sieve).

Two materials were obtained form two local quarries for this purpose.

The percentage of fines was varied in these mixtures.

Each mixture was then put through a regime of tests to determine the effects that content had on their performance.

The tests used included moisture-density relationships, moisture susceptibility, triaxial tests, permanent deformation, and resilient modulus tets.

The research approach, testing procedure, and results are presented and compared.

From the tests performed it was found that increases in the amount of fines often times improved the performance of the base materials.

However, the results also showed that the percentage of fines used in the base material mixtures had a limit.

This limit was found to be approximately 10%.

vi This study is aimed at addressing the impact that the fines content of a base material will have on the performance and lifespan of flexible bases, especially under increased loading.

Through the research the approximate limit of 10% has been found to be adequate enough to prevent permanent deformation and resist moisture susceptibility.

However, further analysis may determine a more exact percentage.

List of List of Chapter One - Two

Background...

TTI Literature ReviewEuropean Three

UTEP Approach...Material Description.Gradation of Mixes...Test and Moisture-Modulus Triaxial Results ...

Moisture-Density and Moisture-Modulus Triaxial Compression Chapter Four

Texas A&M Suction Triaxial Deformation and Resilient Modulus Suction Triaxial Deformation and Resilient Modulus Specimen Deformation Modulus Results....Conclusions and Chapter Five

Summary and 3.1 - Gradation of Bin A, Bin B, and Bin Figure 3.2 - Gradation of Control Blend and Selected Density with Moisture Column

Device and Figure 3
bece results for 2011
.

5 - Typical Load Cell and Accelerometer Figure 3.6 - Typical Transfer of Control Blend....15 Figure 3.8 - Schematic of Protocol for Moisture Susceptibility with FFRC Device.16 and Moisture Content with for Triaxial 3.11 - Typical Mohr Diagram for Tex-143-E Triaxial Figure 3.12 - Typical Mohr Diagram for Tex-117-E Triaxial Figure 3.13 - Grouting of Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation Specimens.20 rmanent Deformation Test s Test Results for 20% Figure 3.16 - Typical Determination of Permanent Deformation Parameters, a and b..24 with Time for Different ent with Time for Different Figure 3.19 - Permanent Deformation Figure 4.1 - Gradation of Texas Crushed Stone with Varying Figure 4.2 - Moisture Density 4.3 - Molding and Compaction Figure 4.4 - Compacted Samples for TST Prior to Placing in the Triaxial Cells.38 rcometer....

Fines Content.

Fines Fines 5% Fines Figure 4.10 - TST results at 10% Fines Figure 4.11 - TST results at 17% Fines psi Lateral psi Lateral Figure 4.14 - Test Set-up for Resilient Figure 4.15 - Specimen Prepared for nd Position of LVDT's on Figure 4.17 - Flowchart of the Test Procedure for Permanent Deformation and Resilient Figure 4.18 - Permanent Deformation Test Result .50 odulus Test e with Varying Fines at Varying Fines lus with Varying Fines ation at Varying Fines Figure 4.24 - Plot of Permanent Deformation Vs Number of Load Cycles at Varying
Fines 2.1

Summary of Flexible Pavement Test Parameters (NCHRP, Table 3.1

Tests Performed on Base Material Table 3.2

Gradation of 3.3

Loading Sequence for Resilient Table 3.4

Loading Sequence for Permanent als for Permanent Table 3.6

Maximum Dry Density and Modulus of the bility Results of Table 3.8

Triaxial Results of Different Table 3.9

Resilient Modulus 3.10

Permanent Deformation Parameters and Rutting Table 4.1

Preliminary Tests 4.2

Sieve Analysis of Texas Crushed Stone along with the proposed new Specifications.35 Table 4.3

Texas Triaxial Test ResultsTable 4.4

Permanent Deformation and ResiliBase and Table 4.5

Results of Tube Suction 4.6

Results of Permanent Deformation and Resilient Modulus The quality of the material used as base for road construction can have a significant impact on the performance and life of the pavement that it is intended to support.

This is especially true in cases where flexible pavements such as asphalt are used.

The material selected as well as the construction methods used to place the material can also affect the performance of the unbound granular base.

It has been found that although current testing procedures provide for durable pavements, a relationship between material performance in the laboratory and in the field does not exist.

Among the problems is the processing and compaction of the base material during construction.

Although all base materials will be exposed to continuous traffic loading, the performance of the base material becomes even more important when heavy-duty flexible pavements are used for greater volumes of traffic.Also of concern is the selection process of base materials.

It has been found that it is not uncommon for a district to have several bases classified as Class 1 materials even though they have varying properties.

The need exists to results and field performance.

At the present time density is used to determine the quality of base layers.

However, there are many other factors that need to be considered.

Among these are moisture variation with depth, exposure time prior to sealing, and thickness of the layers.

All of One of the topics currently being studied includes the impact of gradation and fines content of the base material on its performance.

The general contention has been that the engineering properties of the material can be modified by altering its gradation.

Speccommunity is in agreement that the amount of fines (material passing No.200 sieve) found in a base material can dramatically impact the behavior of a base layer.

It has been determined that the fines content found in a base material mixture is linked to pavement distress and failure.

Among the distresses that have links to the fines content are fatigue cracking, or alligator cracking, and rutting.

Studies have also shown that the type of fines found in the base material also affect the performance of base materials.

Among the findings are the effects that plastic fines have on the performance of base materials.

More specifically, plastic fines impact the moisture susceptibility and the stiffness of the base material.

Under this project, various tests were used to determine the properties of base materials varying in gradation and fines content.

The properties that were analyzed include strength, stiffness, moisture susceptibility, and permanent deformation.

A combination of tests was performed to further understand the effects of gradation and fines content on the base materials.

These tests included sieve analysis, moisture-density curves, Atterberg limits, triaxial tests, moisture susceptibility, permanent deformation, and resilient modulus.This project was developed and simultaneously worked on with the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) at Texas A&M University.

Research approaches, testing procedures and results from both universities are presented and compared.Chapter 2 of this report provides a brief background on previous research concerning the impact of aggregation and fines content on base material performance.

Also included is a review of the European specifications on base materials focusing on gradation and fines content as well.

In Chapter 3, the procedures followed to select the varying base gradations, testing procedures, and results obtained at UTEP are presented.

Chapter 4 contains a summary of the tests performed and results obtained at TTI, with whom we partnered for this project.

Chapter 5, the last chapter, includes a summary of the findings and the conclusions drawn.As previously stated, the quality of a base material can significantly alter the lifespan of the pavement that it supports.

This is even truer for flexible pavements.

Previous research has found that much of the distress that flexible pavements experience can be traced to problems encountered in the base material.

Table 2.1 is a summary of t.
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