Bay-Arenac ISD 2003 DEFINITION Age-Appropriate Suitable for the age of the learner, as in materials and activities.
(Material on Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development is helpful here).American Psychological Association's standards for documentation and format of written texts.
Archetypal Human Experience An experience that fits "the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies." A human experience shared by all regardless of gender, culture, ethnicity, class, etc., e.g., quest for happiness, birth, and death.
A form of discourse, the purpose of which is to convince a reader or hearer by establishing the truth or falsity of a proposition.
It is often combined with .
It differs from technically in its aim,
being content with simply making an explanation.
Taking a position and persuasive essays are forms of Authors Purpose, Craft, Perspective An understanding of authors intention, style and presentation, and impact on audience.Background/Prior Knowledge The readers prior knowledge about a topic.
Readers create meaning when prior knowledge is integrated with new knowledge.When students can draw upon their experiences and background knowledge, their understanding is enhanced, and reading comprehension is greatly improved.
To relate unfamiliar text to their prior world knowledge and/or personal experiencethose connections generally take three forms:
text-to-self connections; text-to-text connections; and text-to-world connections.The force behind an effect or result.
Cause/effect is an expository text structure.Components of texts that make them similar to other texts in a particular genre, for example, title page, table of contents, glossary, boldface headings, and index for informational texts.
Students and teacher reading aloud from a text as the teacher models fluency and expression.This reading in unison helps children understand that print is speech written down as they hear the patterns of language and see the words.Choral reading also develops sight word vocabulary.Classical Texts that have remained important since a considerably earlier time because of their literary merit.
Contemporary Texts that are clearly not classical but are more significant in literary history than those termed currently popular.
Context is the most helpful tool students use to unlock the meaning of print.This meaning comes from the words themselves, the word order, and the combination of the words.Children need to examine the context and then predict a word or word approximation that makes sense in the sentence.Accepted practices in spoken or written language, such as rules for grammar and language; mechanics in/of writing
Bay-Arenac ISD 2003 DEFINITION Critical Analysis/Evaluative MEAP multiple choice questions which are inferential in nature and focus on important ideas in the selection.
Students are required to stand apart from the text and analyze and evaluate the quality, effectiveness, relevance, and consistency of the message, rhetorical features, motivation of the author/character, and the authors purpose and credibility.Critical Standards Personal, shared, and academic criteria for judging the quality of oral, written, and visual texts.
It is the label for ContenStandard 12.Cueing Systems There are three interrelated signals or systems used in the reading process:
semantic cues refer to the meaning attached to individual words and the interrelationships of words (knowledge of language).
Readers use semantic cues to make sense of the text.Syntactic (structural or grammar related) - syntactic cues concern the order of words in phrases and sentences.Readers use syntactic cues to predict and confirm words.
(visual or letter related)
Readers use graphphonic or visual cues to identify and associate print with letter sounds.Culminating Performance Final product/outcome, usually referring to an end-of-semester, end-of-course, or end-of-high-school assessment task.
Decoding Strategies used to assist in the pronunciation of unknown words.Description A form of discourse, the purpose of which is to picture a scene or setting.
Though often used apart for its own sake, it more frequently is subordinated to one of the other types of writing; especially to narration, with which it most frequently goes hand in hand.Dolch Word List List of basic sight words most frequently used in the English language.Directed Reading/Thinking Activity (DRTA) A reading activity used to guide students to activate prior knowledge, make informed guesses as to what the text might contain, and determine a purpose for reading.
(See the Michigan Reading Association Reading Bookmarks for further information.) Enumeration An expository text structure in which ideas are listed in a prescribed order.A long narrative poem, usually about the great deeds of a folk hero, stated in lofty, elevated language, as homers Etymology Study of the origin and historical development of words.Evaluating and Responding Making assumptions and assertions about the content and merit of text that is supported and expressed.Evaluation of Writing and response to Writing Assumptions and assertions about the content and merit of written text (by self and others) that is supported and expressed.
A form of discourse, the purpose of which is to explain the nature of an object, an idea, or a theme.
may exist apart from the other types of composition, but frequently two or more of the types are blended, argument being supported by
reinforcing by example an Expository Text Text that is written by authors to explain, to describe, to present information, or to persuade.Expository text is subject-oriented and contains facts and information using little dialogue.
Examples of expository text structures: C
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