1Cardiovascular PhysiologyCardiovascular PhysiologyReview the basic anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular Describe the electrical and mechanical events involved in the cardiac cycle.Discuss the factors that alter or impact the electrical and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle
.Explain the physiology of circulation and perfusion, including the following components:Cardiac outputBlood pressureFeedback loopsCapillary sphinctersCardiovascular System ReviewCardiovascular System ReviewReview of Cardiovascular Review of Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology:
Anatomy and Physiology:
Incoming blood supplyTricuspid valveChordaetendinae and papillary musclesPulmonary artery5The electrical events occurring at the cell will always preclude the actual muscle The action potential is quick to allow for a faster contraction of Cardiac Cardiac Muscle:Step 1Step 1The conduction cells myocardial cellsSimilar events of depolarizationSodium dumps inwardPotassium rushes outSharp spike of the initial action potential1The Action Potential in Cardiac The Action Potential in Cardiac Muscle: Step 2Muscle: Step 2The sodium channels closeCalcium channels open slowlyCalcium trickles into the cellAllows for a stronger contraction Allows all of the ventricular cells to contract togetherPotassium movement is minimalThe Action Potential in Cardiac The Action Potential in Cardiac Muscle: Step 3Muscle: Step 3The calcium channels close Potassium channels widen Rush of potassium back into the cellSlower return to a complete resting stateAllows for contraction to finish and to get the ventricular chambers to start filling with blood3Action Potential Term: Action Potential Term: AbsoluteA period of time where the action potential is resistant to any additional stimuliSteps 1, 2 and the early part of step 3RelativeA period of time where the action potential moderately resists a stimulusHighlighted areaElectrical and Mechanical Electrical and Mechanical ConnectionsConnectionsPeak of ventricular contraction7Cardiac Feedback LoopsCardiac Feedback LoopsMaster controller: the medullaIncoming inputChemoreceptorsSense changes in pH, PaCOand PaOBaroreceptorsSense changes in arterial pressureResponse of the medullaStimulate the autonomic nervous systemSympathetic Nervous SystemExtensively innervates the SA node and ventricular cellsIncrease in heart rateIncrease in conduction and contractility in the ventriclesParasympathetic Nervous SystemInnervates the SA and AV nodesDecreases heart rateDecreases conduction times through the AV nodeChemical FactorsChemical FactorsEpinephrineStimulation of beta receptors in the myocardiumIncrease in contractility of the ventriclesIncrease in conduction throughout the ventriclesChemical FactorsChemical FactorsElectrolyte ConcentrationsImpacts the strength of contractionsHigh calcium may cause irritability of electrical cellsChemical FactorsChemical FactorsImpacts the rates of firing and recovery of the cardiac cellsHigh potassiumIrregular firing of cardiac cellsDysrhythmias and ventricular fibrillation potentialsLow potassiumLonger delays in the firing of cardiac cellsMay be caused by diuretic useBradycardiaHypotension (systemic complication)Poor cardiac output resultsThe pieces The pieces willwillfit together fit together soonsoon...
Tags: electrical physiology of the heart,animation of the hearts physiology,human heart anatomy and physiology,human physiology of the heart,physiology of the heart pdf,physiology of addiction,physiology of the heart,physiology of behavior,physiology of exercise