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Fire rating for concrete block

Figure 1. Concrete masonry unit equivalent thickness TEK NOTE February 2005 Concrete Masonry Fire Resistance Concrete masonry is a noncombustible ….
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Figure 1. concrete masonry unit equivalent thickness TEK NOTE February 2005 concrete Masonry fire Resistance concrete masonry is a noncombustible …
fire rating for concrete blockfire rating for concrete blockfire rating for concrete block
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING OFTEK 7-1ACONCRETE MASONRY , control joints, equivalent thickness,fire resistance ratings, fire walls, multi-wythe walls, speci-ficationsThis TEK conforms to the stated parameters of theStandard Method for Determining Fire Resistance of Con-crete and Masonry Construction Assemblies, ACI 216.1-97/TMS 0216.1-97 (ref.1–hereinafter referred to as the Stan-dard).

Concrete masonry is widely specified for fire walls andfire separation walls because these elements are:provide durable fire resistance, andare economical to construct.For the most part, the contents of the Standard are notnew, but rather are a compilation and refinement of the manydocuments previously published by the various segments ofthe masonry and concrete industry.

More importantly, theStandard is a document that has gone through a formalconsensus process and is written in mandatory language, andtherefore is now incorporated by reference into the nationalmodel codes.Methods of Determining Fire Resistance RatingsThe fire resistance rating period of concrete masonryelements can be determined by three methods:through a listing service, orby testing.The calculation method is the most practical and mostcommonly used method of determining the fire resistancerating of concrete masonry.

It is based on extensive researchwhich established a relationship between physical propertiesof materials and the fire resistance rating.

The calculationmethod is utilized in the Standard which determines fireresistance ratings based on the equivalent thickness of con-crete masonry units and aggregate types used in their manu-facture.An alternative to the calculation method is provided byprivate commercial listing services.

The listing serviceapproach allows the designer to select a fire rated assemblywhich has been previously classified and listed in a publishedFire Resistance (2001)NCMA TEKNational Concrete Masonry Associationan information series from the national authority on concrete masonry technologyTEK 7-1A

2001 National Concrete Masonry Association (replaces TEK 7-1 and 7-3)directory of listed fire rated assemblies.

The listing servicealso monitors materials and production to verify that theconcrete masonry units are and remain in compliance withappropriate standards.

A premium is usually charged forunits of this type.

The system also is somewhat inflexible inthat little variation from the original tested wall assembly isallowed including unit size, shape, mix design, ingredients,and even the plant of manufacture.The third option, testing of representative elements of theconstruction in accordance with standard fire test methods isgenerally not practical due to the expense of the test and

timerequired to build, cure, and test representative specimens.CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE METHODScopeThis TEK covers methods for determining the fire resis-tance rating of concrete masonry assemblies, including walls,columns, lintels, beams, and concrete masonry fire protectionfor steel columns.

It also includes assemblies composed ofconcrete masonry and other components including plasterand drywall finishes, and multi-wythe masonry componentsincluding clay or shale masonry units.BackgroundThe calculated fire resistance method is based on exten-sive research and results of previous testing of concretemasonry walls.

Fire testing of wall assemblies is conductedin accordance with the Standard Test Methods for Fire Testsof Building Construction and Materials, ASTM E 119 (ref.7)which measures four performance criteria.ASTM E 119 Performance Criteria:resistance to the transmission of heat through thewall assembly,resistance to the passage of hot gases through thewall sufficient to ignite cotton waste,load carrying capacity of loadbearing walls, andresistance to the impact, erosion, and cooling effectsof a hose stream on the assembly after exposure tothe standard fire.The fire resistance rating of concrete masonry is typicallygoverned by the heat transmission criteria.

This type offailure mode is certainly preferable to a structural collapseendpoint characteristic of many other building materialsfrom the standpoint of life safety (particularly for fire fighters)and salvageability.Fire testing of concrete masonry columns evaluates theability of the column to carry design loads under standard firetest conditions.

Fire testing of a concrete masonry protectedsteel column assembly evaluates the structural integrity of thesteel column under fire test conditions by measuring thetemperature rise of the steel.Fire testing of concrete masonry beams and lintels evalu-ates the ability of the member to sustain design loads understandard fire test conditions.

This is accomplished by insur-ing that the temperature rise of the tensile reinforcing doesnot exceed 1100 oF (593 oC) during the rating period.Equivalent ThicknessExtensive testing has established a

relationship betweenthe fire resistance and the equivalent solid thickness forconcrete masonry walls as shown in Table 1.

Equivalentthickness is essentially the solid thickness that would beobtained if the same amount of masonry contained in a hollowunit were recast without core holes.

The equivalent thicknessof a hollow unit is equal to the percentage solid times theactual thickness of the unit.

See Figure 1.

The percentagesolid is determined in accordance with Standard Methods ofSampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units, ASTM C140 (ref.

2).The equivalent thickness of a 100% solid unit or a solidgrouted unit is equal to the actual thickness.

For partiallygrouted walls where the unfilled cells are left empty, theequivalent thickness for fire resistance rating purposes isequal to that of an ungrouted unit.Loadbearing units conforming to ASTM C 90 (ref.6)that are commonly available include 100% solid units, 75%solid units, and hollow units meeting minimum requiredfaceshell and web dimensions.

Typical equivalent thicknessvalues for these units are listed in Table 2.Filling Cells with Loose Fill MaterialIf the cells of hollow unit masonry are filled withapproved materials, the equivalent thickness of the assemblycan be considered the same as the actual thickness.

The listof approved materials includes: sand, pea gravel, crushedstone, or slag that meets ASTM C 33 (ref.

3) requirements;pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, expandedslate, expanded slag, expanded flyash, or cinders that complywith ASTM C 331 (ref.

4) or C 332 (ref.5), or perlite orvermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and C516 (refs.

9 and 8), respectively.Wall AssembliesThe fire resistance rating is determined in accordancewith Table 1 utilizing the appropriate aggregate type of themasonry unit and the equivalent thickness.

Units manufac-tured with a combination of aggregate types are addressed byfootnote (2) which may be expressed by the following equa-tion:If this hollowunit is 53% solid,the equivalentthickness is4.04 inches7 5/8"4.04"Equivalent Thickness = 0.53 x 7-5/8 in.

= 4.04 in.Figure 1—Equivalent Thickness CalculationTable 2—Equivalent Thickness of ConcreteMasonry Units, in.

(mm)NominalBased onBased onwidth, in.typicalpercent solid(mm)hollow units14 (102)2.76 (152)3.18 (203)4.010 (254)5.012 (305)5.7Values in brackets [ ] are percent solid values basedon typical two core concrete masonry units.Table 1—Fire Resistance Rating Period of Concrete Masonry Assemblies (ref.1)Aggregate type in the Minimum required equivalent thickness for fire resistance rating, in.

(mm)1concrete masonry unit24 hours3 hours2 hours1.5 hours1 hour0.75 hours0.5 hoursCalcareous or siliceous gravel6.2Limestone, cinders or slag5.9Expanded clay, shale or slate5.1Expanded slag or pumice4.71.Fire resistance rating between the hourly fire resistance rating periods listed may be determined by linear interpolation based on theequivalent thickness value of the concrete masonry assembly.2.Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire resistance rating for units made with a combination of aggregatesshall be determined by linear interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in the manufacture.Figure 2—Fire Resistance of Multi-WytheMasonry Wall (ref.1)Wythe (RAir space factor (A) forwidths 1 in.

(13 mm) orgreaterWythe (R = Fire resistance rating of wythe 1R = Fire resistance rating of wythe 2A= Air space factor = 0.3Table 3—Fire Resistance of Brick or Tile of Clay or Shale (ref.1)Material typeMinimum required equivalent thickness1 forfire resistance rating, in.

(mm)4 hours3 hours2 hoursl hour 75% solidHollow units2Hollow units36.0 (152)5.0 (127)4.9 (124)4.3 (109)3.8 (97)3.4 (86)4.4 (112)2.7 (69)2.3 (58)1.See section entitled "Equivalent Thickness" for calculation.2.Unfilled hollow units.3.Grouted or filled per section entitled "Filling Cells with

Loose Fill Material".For multi-wythe walls of clay brick and concrete ma-sonry, use the values of Table 3 for the brick wythe in theabove equation.Concrete Masonry LintelsThe fire resistance rating of concrete masonry lintels isdetermined based upon the nominal thickness of the linteland the minimum cover of longitudinal reinforcement inaccordance with Table 5.

Cover requirements in excess of 1in.

(38 mm) protect the reinforcement from strength degra-dation due to excessive temperature during the fire exposureperiod.

Cover requirements may be provided by masonryunits, grout, or mortar.T = ( x) + ( x V

=required equivalent thickness for a specific fireresistance rating of an assembly constructed ofunits with combined aggregates, in
fire rating for concrete block
.

(mm)T, T2 required equivalent thickness for a specific fireresistance rating of a wall constructed of units withaggregate types 1 and 2, respectively, in.(mm)V, V2fractional volume of aggregate types 1 and 2, re-spectively, used in the manufacture of the unitMulti-Wythe Wall AssembliesThe fire resistance rating of multi-wythe walls (Figure 2) isbased on the fire resistance of each wythe and the air spacebetween each wythe in accordance with the following Equa-tion.R = (R0.59 + R20.59 +...+Rn0.59 + A1 + A2 +...An, R2 = fire resistance rating of wythe 1, 2,...n,respectively (hours).A, A2 = 0.30; factor for each air space, 1, 2,...n,respectively, having a width of 1 to 31 in.(13 to 89 : It does not matter which side isexposed to the fire.Reinforced Concrete Masonry ColumnsThe fire resistance rating of reinforced concrete masonrycolumns is based on the least plan dimension of the columnas indicated in Table 4.

The minimum required cover over thevertical reinforcement is 2 in.(51 mm).Table 5—Reinforced Concrete Masonry LintelsMinimum Longitudinal Reinforcing Cover,in.(mm) (ref.

1)Nominallintel width,Fire resistance ratingin., (mm)1 hour2 hours 3 hours4 hours6 (152)1-8 (203)110 (254) or more1Blended aggregate example:The required equivalent thickness of an assemblyconstructed of units made with expanded shale (80% byvolume), and calcareous sand (20% by volume), to meet a3 hour fire resistance rating is:T

for expanded shale (3 hour rating) = 4.4 in.(112 mm)T

for calcareous sand (3 hour rating) = 5.3 in.(135 mm)T = (4.4 x 0.80) + (5.3 x 0.20) = 4.58 in.

(116 mm)Table 4—Reinforced Concrete Masonry Columns (ref.1)Minimum column dimensions, in.

(mm),for fire resistance rating

of:1 hour2 hours3 hours4 hours8 (203)10 (254)12 (305)14 (356)Control JointsFigure 3 shows control joint details in fire rated wallassemblies in which openings are not permitted or whereopenings are required

to be protected.

Maximum joint widthis

in.(13 mm).Steel Columns Protected by Concrete MasonryThe fire resistance rating of steel columns protected byconcrete masonry as illustrated in Figure 4 is determined bythe following equation:R = 0.401(Ast /p + {0.285(T) x[1.0 + (42.7{(Ap + Tea)]}(English units)R = 7.13(Ast p + {0.0027(T) x[1.0 + (2.49x107p + Tea)]}(SI units)Where:Fire resistance rating of the column assembly, hr.ACross-sectional area of the steel column, in.2 (m2Density of concrete masonry protection, pcf (kg/m3 pHeated perimeter of steel column, in.(mm)kThermal conductivity of concrete masonry, Table 6,Btu/hr•ft•F (W/m•K)pInner perimeter of concrete masonry protection, in.(mm)TEquivalent thickness of concrete masonry protec-tion, in.

(mm)Table 6—Properties of Concrete Masonry UnitsDensity,

DThermal conductivity1, kpcf (kg/m3F (W/m•K)80Thermal conductivity at 70 oF.oC = (oEffects of Finish MaterialsIn many cases drywall, plaster or stucco finishes areadded to concrete masonry walls.

While finishes are nor-mally applied for architectural reasons, they also provideadditional fire resistance value.

The Standard (ref.1) makesprovision for calculating the additional fire resistance pro-vided by these finishes.It should be noted that when finishes are used to achieveFigure 3—Control Joints for Fire Resistant Concrete Masonry Assemblies (ref.

1)4 Hour Fire Resistance RatingSealant and backerMortar (1 in., 13 mmminimum depth)4 Hour Fire Resistance Rating4 Hour Fire Resistance Rating2 Hour Fire Resistance RatingSealant and backerPreformed gasketSealant and backerBond breakerSealant and backerGrout keyCeramic fiber felt(alumina-silica fibers)Vertical reinforcementeach side of jointthe required fire resistance rating, the masonry alone mustprovide at least one-half of the total required rating.

This isto assure structural integrity during a fire.Certain finishes deteriorate more rapidly when exposedto fire than when on the non-fire side of the wall.

Therefore,two separate tables are required.

Table 7 applies to finisheson the non-fire exposed side of the wall and Table 8 appliesto finishes on the fire exposed side.For finishes on the non-fire exposed side of the wall, theFigure 4—Details of Concrete Masonry ColumnProtection for Commonly Used Shapes (ref.

1)tp = 2(w + d) + 2(w - t = 4dp = pdddfinish is converted to equivalent thickness of concrete ma-sonry by multiplying the thickness of the finish by the factorgiven in Table 7.

This is then added to the base concretemasonry wall equivalent thickness which is used in Table 1to determine the fire resistance rating.For finishes on the fire exposed side of the wall, a timeis assigned to the finish in Table 8 which is added to the fireresistance rating determined for the base wall and non-fireside finish.

The times listed in Table 8 are essentially thelength of time the various finishes will remain intact whenexposed to fire (on the fire side of the wall).When calculating the fire resistance rating of a wall withfinishes, two calculations are performed.

The first is assum-ing fire on one side of the wall and the second is assuming thefire on the other side.

The fire rating of the wall assembly isthen the lowest of the two.

Note that there may be situationswhere the wall needs to rated with the fire on only one side.Installation of FinishesFinishes that are assumed to contribute to the total fireresistance rating of a wall must meet certain minimuminstallation requirements.

Plaster and stucco need only beapplied in accordance with the provisions of the buildingcode.

Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath may be attachedto wood or metal furring strips spaced a maximum of 24 in.(610 mm) on center or may be attached directly to the wallwith adhesives.

Drywall and furring may be attached in oneof two ways:Table 8—Time Assigned to Finish Materials onFire Exposed Side of Wall (ref.1)Finish descriptionTime, minGypsum wallboard

3 in.

(10 mm)

1 in.(13 mm)

5 in.(16 mm)

Two layers of 3 in.

(10 mm)

One layer of 3 in.(10mm) and one layer

of 1 in.(16mm)

Two layers of 1 in.(16 mm)10153540Type “X” gypsum wallboard1 in.(13 mm)5 in.

(16 mm)2540Direct-applied portland cement-sand plasterSee Note 1Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath3 in.

(19 mm)7 in.(22 mm)1 in.(25 mm)2025Gypsum-sand plaster on 3 in.(10 mm)gypsum lath1 in.(13 mm)5 in.(16 mm)3 in.(22 mm)3540Gypsum-sand plaster on metal lath3 in.(19 mm)7 in.(22 mm)1 in.

(25 mm)50601.

For purposes of determining the contribution of portland cement-

sand plaster to the equivalent thickness of concrete or masonry for

use in Table 1, it shall be permitted to use the actual thickness of

the plaster, or 5 in.(16 mm), whichever is smaller.Table 7—Multiplying Factor for Finishes on Non-Fire Exposed Side of Wall (ref.1)Type of finishapplied to slabor wallType of material used in concretemasonry unitsSiliceous orcarbonate aggregateconcrete masonryunitExpanded shale,expanded clay,expanded slag, orpumice less than 20percent sandPortland cement-sand plaster1 orterrazzo0.751.00ulite or perliteplaster1.25Gypsum wall-board2.251.

For portland cement-sand plaster 58 in.

(16 mm) or less in
thickness, and applied directly to concrete masonry on the non-fire-

exposed side of the wall, multiplying factor shall be 1.0.NATIONAL CONCRETE MASONRY ASSOCIATION2302 Horse Pen Road, Herndon, order a complete TEK Manual or TEK Index,contact NCMA Publications (703) 713-19001).Self-tapping drywall screws spaced a maximum of 12 in.(305 mm) and penetrating a minimum of 3 in.

(10 mm)into resilient steel furring channels running horizontallyand spaced a maximum of 24 in.

(610 mm) on center.2).Lath nails spaced at 12 in.(305 mm) on center maxi-mum, penetrating 3 in.(19 mm) into nominal 1 x 2 in.(25 x 51 mm) wood furring strips which are attached tothe masonry with 2 in.(51 mm) concrete nails spaced amaximum of 16 in.(41 mm) on center.Gypsum wallboard must be installed with the longdimension parallel to the furring members and all horizontaland vertical joints must be supported and finished.

The onlyexception is 5 in.(16 mm) Type "X" gypsum wallboardwhich may be installed horizontally without being supportedat the horizontal joints.For drywall attached by the adhesive method, a 3 in.(10mm) bead of panel adhesive must be placed around theperimeter of the wallboard and across the diagonals and thensecured with a masonry nail for each 2 ft2 (0.19 m2)of panel.CONCLUSIONThe calculated fire resistance procedure is practical,versatile, and economical.

It is based on thousands of tests.It is incorporated by reference into the major model codes ofthe US and allows the designer virtually unlimited flexibilityto incorporate the excellent fire resistive properties of con-crete masonry into the design.REFERENCESStandard Method for Determining Fire Resistance of Con-crete and Masonry Construction Assemblies, ACI 216.1-97/TMS 0216.1-97.

American Concrete Institute and The Ma-sonry Society, 1997.2.Standard Methods of Sampling and Testing Concrete Ma-sonry Units, ASTM C 140-01.

American Society for Testingand Materials, 2001.3.Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates, ASTM C33-01.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 2001.4.Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Con-crete Masonry Units, ASTM C 331-01.

American Society forTesting and Materials, 2001.5.Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates forInsulating Concrete, ASTM C 332-99.

American Society forTesting and Materials, 1999.6.Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete MasonryUnits, ASTM C 90-01.

American Society for Testing andMaterials, 2001.7.Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construc-tion and Materials, ASTM E 119-00a.

American Society forTesting and Materials, 2000.8.Sta
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