The formal curriculum may be thought of as the purposefully taught lessons that students experience in schools.
National, state, and local curriculum guides specify the grade-by-grade learning goals children are expected to achieve from this officially endorsed, prescribed instruction.
Textbooks and other instructional resources are used to help students learn the prescribed formal curriculum.
The formal curriculum is open to public review and it is often tested to provide evidence of students' learning.
In the subject area of social studies, the intellectual foundation of the formal curriculum comes from the social sciences and the humanities.
2.1.1.The Social Sciences and Humanitiesdiscipline-focused studies are the exception rather than the rule in most elementary grade level classrooms4.
The predominant approach to teaching elementary social studies is an integrated disciplines approach and this approach is likely to remain popular in the future (Haas & Laughlin, 2001).
So, to summarize, from the standpoint of the formal curriculum, elementary social studies is the content of the social sciences and certain humanities simplified and applied to themes or topics studied by young children.
This curriculum is supposed to be taught to all childrenSecond, and more important, is the fact that much of the informal curriculum is not hidden at all!
Instead, it is a highly visible, yet unwritten, aspect of schooling.
This highly visible yet unwritten aspect of the school experience may be thought of as the natural social studies curriculum.
2.2.1.The Natural Curriculum
Returning to the theme of the opening scenario, attempt to imagine the dullness of a young child's school year in a classroom where the teacher refused to consider the influence of holidays, important current events, and everyday developments happening in the children's own homes.
What view of school would children have if they experienced the same routine "3Rs" instruction over and over?
The standard school day would involve reading out of the basal, completing reading skills workbooks, doing math worksheets, polishing must show children how to responsibly participate in the many decisions that affect their lives in school.
In doing so, schools implant the expectation that citizens must be included in making the governmental decisions of their communities.
Examples of this type of experience in the primary grades include involving students in questions about aspects of their daily schedule Ms.Abercrombie's arm sucking hard on his pacifier as she quietly read "Tawny Scrawny Lion."
By age three Seth had visited his Mother's place of work.
He understood that there were other children like him who lived with their grandparents.
Mom said it was only "temporary," whatever that meant.
To him it meant Grammy's good cooking and games with Granddad.
Taking a bubble bath with Mom in the big claw-foot tub was a nightly treat.
After she got out there was always time for water play with his collection of bath toys.
By age four Seth and his Mom had moved to a new town.
Daycare changed some.
There were more children and the teachers seemed to be less fun.
They were always watching, giving orders, and breaking up fights.
Seth was anxious to go home each day when his Mother arrived.
Mom's cooking just
The Teacher and Students as Decision Makers
Decisions about what to learn, when to learn it, and how to go about it are the essence of teaching.
Curriculum coordinators, school boards, principals, textbook authors, and teachers typically make such decisions.
In some subject areas such as math, there is a restricted body of content and a relatively well-established sequence of instructiongateway to many states' curriculum standards is: .A good source of quick information about elementary social studies is The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), sponsored by the of the most popular websites of the U.S.
Department of Education.
7.Selected Readings Alleman, J.
E., & Rosaen, C.L.
The cognitive, social-emotional, and moral development characteristics of students: Basis for elementary and middle school social studies.
P.Shaver (Ed.), Handbook of research on social studies teaching and learning (pp.121-133).
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Democratic climates in elementary classrooms: A review of theory and research.
Theory and Research in Social Education, 19, 241-266.
A.( school social studies: Research as a guide to practice.
National Council for the Social Studies.
Washington, DC.Banks, J.
A., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W Hass, M.E., & Laughlin, M.A.
A profile of elementary social studies teachers and their classrooms.
Social Education, 65, 122-126.Hepburn, M.A.( education in schools and classrooms.
National Council for the Social .Joyce, W.W., Alleman-Brooks, J.
E., & Orimoloye, P.S.
Teachers', supervisors', and teacher educators' perceptions of social studies.
Social Education, 46, 357-360.Knight, S.
L., & Waxman, H.C.(1990).
Investigating the effects of the cla.
Five Little Pumpkins
English/Language Arts K.2.5
English/Language Arts K.1.15
Read one-syllable and high-frequency (often-rresponding order word, 3 out of 5 times.students approximately 5 minutes to complete the worksheet.
Collect worksheets for Advance Preparation by Teacher:
Obtain a copy of Five Little
Copy enough worksheets for each student Make order word magnets Create magnet of the Five Little Pumpkins , going trick-or-treating).
Read students the story (Gardner: Bodily/Kinesthetic, Musical/Rhythmic, Verbal/Linguistic)Step by Step Plan:
1).Explain to the students t 2).
As you say each order word, write
Point to each word again, and reemphasize the word and its meaning.
4).Read the story a third ons), but this time, tell students to pay close attention to the way that these words are used to show order
Put the magnet of t 6).Ask students who can put the word magnet first by the first pumpkin.
Call on a student to come up to the board and place the word magnet first tical) (Bloom: Knowledge) 8).Ask students to give a thumbs up if (Bloom:
Evaluation) 9).Repeat steps 6 and 7 fo 10).Pass out a Five Little Pumpkins worksheet to each student (see attached).
Explain to students to draw a line fr 12).Give students approximately 5 mi 13).Collect the worksheets.
Check to the pumpkin to its proper order word.
also learned a fun new rhym Learning Disability in Basic Reading Skilone with either the teacher ororder word, and then have the student draw a line to the corresponding pumpkin.
Mild Cognitive Disability: High Ability Reader:
How could I expand this le.
GRADE 7 - NATURAL SCIENCEGRADE 7 ( Science SkillsA variety of interdisciplinary projects,covering the objectives.Identify lab equipment.Define the proper use and care of labequipment.Describe lab safety.Discussion/lecture on laboratoryequipment and guidelines/procedures forsafety skills.Student Activities:
Small group, hands-on laboratoryinvestigations (ex.practice using andidentifying lab equipment).Teacher-generated worksheets and studentstudyguides on lab equipment and safety.Jeopardy quizzes.Teacher observations during lab.investigations.Group presentations to the class.Resource text:
Life Science TheChallenge Of Discovery, L.Bierer et.al.Chapter 1, pp.10-30.Life Science: The Challenge ofDiscovery Study Guide Worksheet,
9.Life Science: The Challenge ofDiscovery Laboratory ManualWorksheet,
pp.1-12.Science World Magazines.Teacher-generated handouts.Distinguish between length, mass,volume, temperature and time.Calculate measurements in metric units.Discussion/lecture on metric system anddifferences between types group labinvestigations (ex.
Gum Elastics lab,teacher-generated measurement labs).Worksheets and student studyguides onmeasurements and metric system.Jeopardy quizzes.Teacher observations during lab.investigations.Group presentations to the class.Laboratory write-ups.Resource text:
Ch.1, pp.22-25,Activity 1.4.Study Guide Worksheet: p.4.Science World Magazines.Science Mind Stretchers, I.
Forte & S.Schurr, pp.51-54.Teacher-created handouts.Identify the steps in the scientific process.Record and describe observationsaccurately.Formulate a hypothesis.Assemble and analyze data and research.Discussion/lecture on scientific process(observations, formulate hypotheses,design a procedure, collect and analyzedata, evaluate results, formulateconclusion, report results).Cooperative group work.Jeopardy quizzes.Teacher observations during lab.investigations.Group presentations to the class.Laboratory write-ups.Resource text:
1, pp.14-20.Science World Magazines.Oobleck, LHS GEMS.Paper Towel Testing, LHS GEMS.GRADE 7 - NATURAL SCIENCEGRADE 7 ( procedures to test hypotheses.Evaluate results and formulate aconclusion.Report results of lab procedures.Hands-on lab investigations to testhypotheses.(ex.Oobleck, Paper TowelTesting).Worksheets and student studyguides onscientific process.Field investigations to collect data.Journal writing on selected topic.Computer programs: Clarisworksspreadsheet and graphing, Cricket Graph.Journals.Collection of data.Short writing assignments.Computer programs: Clarisworks.Teacher-created handouts.Bubble-ology, LHS GEMS.Videos:Beakmans world.You Be The Judge.Medicine Man.Identify parts of the microscope anddemonstrate proper useage.Discussion/lecture on the microscope andits use.Cooperative group work.Hands-on lab investigations (ex.cheekcell/elodea leaf microscope lab).Worksheets and student studyguides.Field investigations.Teacher observations during lab.investigations.Group presentations to the class.Collection of data.Jeopardy quizzes.Diagrams and drawings.Resource text:
Ch.1, pp.26-31.Science World Magazines.Science Mind Stretchers, pp.55-58.Teacher-created handouts.Studyguide worksheet, p.10.Lab manual worksheet, p.6.Describe real-life applications of science.Evaluate cross-team, collaborative,thematic project.Identify the Hawaiian values found in thescientific field.Explain the significance of incorporatingHawaiian values in science.Halloween theme science demonstrationshow performed by science teachers cross-teaming with each other.
Display ofchemical demonstrations used in a storyincorporating Hawaiian values.Student feedback.Colleague evaluations.Yes Virginia,...Learning ChemistryCan Be Fun, C.M.
Lang & D.L.Showalter.Chemical Demonstrations- Sourcebookfor Teachers, Vol.2, 2nd Ed., L.R.Summerlin et al.Bunny Ng & Deane DeCastro (Props,story line and performance).GRADE 7 - NATURAL SCIENCEGRADE 7 ( variety of interdisciplinary projects,covering the objectives.Identify plant characteristics andadaptations.Distinguish between vascular/non-vascular, and between endemic, indigenousand introduced plants in Hawaii.Identify plant the functions of different plantstructures.Explain the uses of plants.Identify various plant habitats and relatethe adaptations to the habitats.Explain the relationship of
the uses ofnative plants to Hawaiian practices andculture.Teacher-created handouts on characteristicsof plants, structures, functions, uses andexamples.Discussion/lecture characteristics ofplants, structures, functions, uses andexamples.Cooperative group work on plants.Hands-on lab investigations (ex.flowerdissection, leaf-shapes lab, celery lab).The following activities relate to plants:Worksheets and student studyguides:Field investigationsReading assignmentsVideo presentationsField tripsNature walksComputer programsSimulationsEducational board gamesJournal writing.Teacher observations during lab.investigations.Group presentations to the class.Laboratory write-ups.Journals.Collection of data.Jeopardy quizzes.Rubrics.Short writing assignments.Diagrams and drawings.Collaborative group projects.Individual projects.Resource text:
Ch.7, 8& 9, pp.
156-222.Science World Magazines.Ohia Project, Gr.4-6, Bishop Museum.Ohia Project, Gr.7-8, Bishop Museum.Teacher-created handouts.Hawaii Nature Study Program, UH.Field Trips:Lyons ArboretumHoomaluhiaBishop Museum.Laser Disk:Sexual Encounters of the Floral Kind.Videos:Hawaii and PlanetHawaii Plants as MedicineWe All Need the Forest.Coastal Zone.GRADE 7 - NATURAL SCIENCEGRADE 7 ( variety of interdisciplinary projects,covering the objectives.Discuss the charactersistics of anecosystem.Compare food chains and food webs.Discuss how competition affectspopulations in an ecosystem.Describe the process of natural selection.Explain the relationship betweenorganisms and the environment.Explain the importance of nat
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