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Hindi language alphabets

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Ijsrp apr 2012 08
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012
1 ISSN 2250-3153 Hindi & Telugu Text-to-Speech Synthesis (TTS) and inter-language text Conversion Lakshmi Sahu and Avinash Dhole

Raipur Institute of Technology Raipur - 492001 (C.G.), INDIA
Abstract- In this paper, I am explaining single text-to-speech (TTS) system for Indian languages (Viz., Hindi, Telugu, Kannada etc.) to generate human voice or speech (text to a spoken waveform).

In a text-to-speech system, spoken utterances are automatically produced from text.This paper present a corpus-driven text-to-speech (TTS) system based on the concatenative synthesis approach.

The output generated by the proposed text-to-speech synthesis system resembles natural human voice.It accepts input in two forms: manual user entry and from file (text or MS Word document).

Proposed system supports multiple way of output; direct to computer speakers, Wav file, or MP3 file.

Generated output can have different accent, tone based on selected languages.The proposed text-to-speech system will be implemented in C#.Net (Windows Form Application) and runs on Windows platforms.This paper has examples for Hindi (North Indian) and Telugu (South Indian) inter-language text conversion (not translation).

Therefore, Hindi text will be converted into Telugu text and vice-versa.

The research and development of this TTS done for my M.Tech major project.
Index Terms- text-to-speech, indian language, hindi, telugu, speech synthesis, concatenation, text conversion.

I.INTRODUCTION he function of Text-To-Speech (TTS) system is to convert the given text to a spoken waveform.

This conversion involves text processing and speech generation processes.These processes have connections to linguistic theory, models of speech production, and acoustic-phonetic characterization of language.To build a voice/speech for a language text, the steps involved are as follows (elaborated in Figure 1): - Indian Language Analysis: Preparation of phoneme & di-phoneme list used in a language.Have enumeration to represent these phones (viz.phonetics).- Building input sound inventory to support all phoneme & di-phoneme - Define letter to sound rules/mapping - Text Analysis: Analysis of input text (language) and converting into phoneme enumeration.- Getting sound file (or content) for each enumerated value and concatenating them to construct speech.- Evaluation of resultant speech

Fig.1 Block diagram of text to wave file generation II.INDIAN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS
The scripts of Indian languages have originated from the ancient Brahmi script.The basic units of writing system are characters which are orthographic representation of speech sounds
hindi language alphabets
.A character in Indian language scripts is close to syllable and can be typically of the following form: C, V, CV, CCV and CVC, where C is a consonant and V is a vowel.

There are about 35 consonants and about 18 vowels in Indian languages.
An important feature of Indian language scripts is their phonetic nature.There is more or less one to one correspondence between what is written and what is spoken.The rules required to map the letters to sounds of Indian languages are almost straight forward.

All Indian language scripts have common phonetic base.
Available character sets (windows default, UNICODE) for computers do not supports Indian languages (Hindi, Gujrati, Telugu, Kannada etc).

Therefore, we use custom fonts (from different vendors, viz., Ankit (Hindi), Tikkana (Telugu)) to work with Indian languages.These fonts still use character sets like windows default or UNICODE.However, their graphical T Text Processing

Wave Data Generation Language Text

Language specific parsing rules Diphone wave files.Wave file Bhaarah Khadi mp3 file

MP3 Conversion

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012
2 ISSN 2250-3153 representation will be different.

For example vowel V_A is represented by character "v" in Hindi and "@" in Telugu.

Table 1: Vowels in Hindi & Telugu

Alphabet Hindi Telugu V_A


@ V_AA




B V_I2




D V_U2

E V_E0





J V_O0



L V_O2






Table 2: Consonants in Hindi & Telugu Alphabet Hindi Telugu C_K









S 3: Consonants in Hindi & Telugu Alphabet Hindi Telugu C_SH




r C_H


v English language always have vowel characters right of its associated consonant.However, in Indian languages, vowel may appear both sides (left, right) of consonant.

In English, whether vowel positioned at start or mid or end of word,

its appearance will not be changed (Capitalization rule is exception here.).Whereas, if vowel appear at start of word, it will have its full form.Appearance at mid or end, it will have its half form (In Hindi, we refer MAATRAA, In Telugu, GUNITALU).This will vary language to language, vowel to vowel.Table 1 shows that how vowel V_I appears in Hindi & Telugu.
Table 4: Vowel & consonant appearance in words

Building a sound inventory involves making a decision on basic unit of synthesis, enumeration of phonemes, recording, labeling and finally coding the data.


Basic unit of synthesis
The basic unit of synthesis can be a phoneme or diphone or syllable or word or phrase or even a sentence.Theoritically, larger the basic unit, fewer will be the concatenation points during synthesis and better the quality of
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