Agreement T4118, Task 04 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Edward D.McCormack
Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC) University of Washington, Box 354802
98105-4631 Washington State Department of Transportation Technical Monitor Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration 1.
GOVERNMENT ACCESSION NO.
RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NO.
AND SUBTITLE WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.Edward D.
ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10.
WORK UNIT NO.Washington State Transportation Center
University of Washington, Box 354802
Street, Suite 535 Agreement T4118, Task 04 Seattle, Washington (98105-7370) 12.
SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS 13.
TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED Washington State Department of Transportation Olympia, Washington 98504-7372 14.
SPONSORING AGENCY CODE Doug Brodin, Project Manager, NOTES This study was conducted in cooperation with the University of Washington and the US Department of 16.
ABSTRACT Small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly affordable, easy to transport and launch, and can be equipped with cameras that provide information usable for transportation agencies.
The Washington State Department of Transportation control tool on mountain slopes above state highways.
WSDOTs maintenance division has an active snow avalanche control program that is designed to reduce highway closure time and hazards to motorists, and the use of UAVs was seen as having some potential operational advantages.
The UAVs also captured aerial images suitable for traffic surveillance and data collection.
The evaluation found that the main limitation to UAV use is institutional, particularly the need to obtain approval to fly from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
This approval process will make UAV use a challenge, but these issues may 17.
KEY WORDS 18.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Unmanned aircraft, avalanche control, traffic No restrictions.
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information 19.
(of this report) 20.
SECURITY CLASSIF.(of this page) 21.
NO.OF PAGES 22.
PRICE None None The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein.
The contents do not Commission, Washington State Department of Transportation, or Federal Highway Administration.This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. y
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become an increasingly familiar technology and have become smaller, more capable, and less expensive because of both military investment in the UAV industry and improved technology.
Current generation UAVs can be transported in small vehicles and launched from a road or a small truck but are still large enough to be equipped with cameras and sensors that can provide low-cost aerial information.
These aircraft are capable of flying autonomously and completing preset flight plans.organizations such as the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) because a UAV could be a beneficial, and perhaps cost effective, tool for a range of maintenance, engineering, planning, and operations functions.
Potential uses of UAVs by transportation organizations include avalanche control, search and rescue, crash scene photogr
Number of lessons in the subcourse:
Materials you need in addition to this booklet are a number 2 pencil and the ACCP examination response sheet and preaddressed envelope you received with this subcourse.3.
This subcourse contains a multiple-choice examination covering the material in the lesson.
After studying the lesson and working through the practice exercise, complete the examination.
Mark your answers in the subcourse booklet, then transfer them to the ACCP examination response sheet.
Completely your selection (A, B, C, or D).
Use a number 2 lead pencil to mark your responses
When you complete the ACCP examination response sheet, mail it in the preaddressed envelope you ve an examination score in the mail.
You will receive two credit hours for successful completion of this examination.
Knowledge of small arms defense against air attack is indispensable in the event that your unit is attacked during normal performance of mission requirements, while your unit is moving, while one or more weapon systems is nonoperational, or when pop-up targets suddenly appear.
Successful small arms defense against air attack is an essential element of survival on the lication of the principles and proper techniques of
use of passive air defense will help your unit accomplish its mission.
Small arms can be used effectively against air attack (Figure 1).
You integrate air defense into any tactical training, and since we cannot assume air superiority in future conflicts, the significance of achieving maximum use of all weapons suitable for air Learning to use our full firepower for air defense mPART A - RECOGNIZE THE THREAT1.
Identify Threat Airframes.
The primary aerial threats that must be countered include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) such
in addition to cruise missiles (CM) like the .
Also, rotary wing (RW) attack helicopters including the
surveillance, interdiction, antiarmor, and troop support missions.
Only occasional attack by high-performance aircraft can be expected Elements in the division corps rear, especially nuclear delivery means, command and control ed attacks by high-performance aircraft.
These attacks will occur early in the war, with a lessening of attack frequency after about three days.Expect attacks in the early morning.
Pilots are sortie of the day.
The danger of attack increases again near noon and in the early evening.
24-hour a day mission.
The enemys order of battle, combat capability, readiness, and will to fight are some of the factors that will determine the times and rates of sorties.
Convoys of troops, as well as supply trains, will always be vulnerable targets, especially as they concentrate at choke points along the convoy route.
The threat generally will consist of UAVs, attackin the forward area near lines of contact, and ground attack fighter-bombers in the rear areas and against convoys.
Because these types of aircraft differ in their capabilities and in the manner in which they conduct tactical operations, they present distinctly different threat profiles.2.
Identify Threat Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) UAVs are your most common air threat.
They are inexpensive, easily procured or manufactured, and versatile.There are over 100 UAV programs being pursued by at least 35 countries.
Their small radar cross sections (RCS) make them very difficult to detect and track.
forward looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, laser designators, television (TV), thermal imaging devices, chaff, decoy and electronic attack capabilities.
Ranges vary from 25 to 800 kms, and the upper limit of flight endurance reaches 72 hours.
They perform a wide variety of missions including reconnaissance, intelligence, suppression of enemy air defense, ground attack, decoy, communications relay and chemical detection.
(The RISTA mission, which utilizes enemy UAVs to locate friendly maneuver forces and key assets with the ability to pass real-time information back to enemy long-range attack systems, is the greatest near term concern for short range air defense and the force commander.)
Three potential threat unmanned aerial vehicles, the 5.
Identify Ground Attack Aircraft.
Although theater missile threats have taken the place of FW aircraft as the principal air threat to ground forces, the following types of FW aircraft may be employed by the enemy against friendly forces: bombers, fighter-bombers, fighters and close air support aircraft.
Any of the FW family may carry (TASM), while only the larger ones will carry cruise missiles.
Improvements to FW aircraft will include increased survivability and improved fire control accuracy.
Examples of three potentially threat aircraft, the
The pilot generally knows the target location and will carry the correct ordnantargets of opportunity.
Pilots must locate their ordnance in a short time.
As a result, accuracy type weapons such as cluster bomb units (CBUs) run, while cannon and machine gun fire will likely be used in the follow-on attack.
High-performance aircraft, operating in a ground attack role, attack at relatively high speeds.
They normally operate under centralized control a area where they deliver ordnance selected to optimize destruction effects on the target.
If they have ordnance remaining after completing their primary mission, the aircraft may be released to attack targets of opportunity on their return flight.
The attack will usually include a high-speedtarget area to avoid low- and medium-altitude air defenses.
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