Adaptive Behavior the Field Association on Association on are those the authors not necessarily official policy or the editor, its measurements Includes bibliographical Affiliated Program Affiliated Program Affiliated Program The University Stephen Greenspan, Applied Psychology Affiliated Program Universitk du Heal was our friend, colleague, and mentor.OF ADAPTIVE Historical Overview 1 1 Behavior: Functional Factor Analysis: Factor Analytic Big-Picture Perspective and Intelligence: Implications for Multifactorial Approach Adaptive Behavior Behavior Occurs Action Framework for Context Demands Adaptive Behavior Setting-Specific Demands Selection and Adaptive Behavior Adaptive Behavior Cultural Group Gender and Race Factors the Assessment Adaptive Behavior or Ethnicit Test Bias Normative Sampl Adaptive Behavior Historical Perspective Criminal Liability Maladaptive Behaviors Assessment Strategies Competent Assessments Translation or Translation Equivalence a Translation Standards and Definition, Classification, and Systems Skills Areas Cultural Fairness Field Test General Scoring Adaptive Skills Culturally Individualized OF ADAPTIVE Understand Contextual an Ecological or Functional 1 1 Adaptive Behavior Test Bias Table 10.1 Table 10.2 Table 10.5 behavior factors emerging subscale and Sample tasks Sample assistive technology settingspecific demands behavior scales their characteristics and females non-whites (decimals statistics for non-whites (decimals adaptive area supports and their weights response theory response theory three settings each adaptive Figure 3.1 adaptive behavior factors adaptive factors adaptive factors maladaptive behavior: Understanding adaptive behavior: heuristic big-picture Proposed action-outcome model social effectiveness selecting assistive technology evaluating assistive technology Static model personal competence Back-translation procedure translation or three settings heuristic model mental retardation has developed Association on on Adaptive mental retardation (Luckasson, pursuing reliable adaptive behavior critical role behavior, including various measurement are available measure or ones adaptive to the critical role ones culture adaptive skills, combined be used their communities.changing conception changing concep- may well future definitions goals directed behavior has been mental retardation since its on Mental classification manual skills found necessary criterion mental retardation subaverage intellectual function- exists concurrently related limitations or more applicable adaptive communication, self-care, home self-direction, health safety, functional academics, leisure, on adaptive definition (Luckasson et adaptive behavior concerns surround- conceptual nature adaptive behavior its opera- tional use other issues considerations (Simeonsson tion into their communities support systems; recent court special educa- assessment outcomes; special needs into public legislation mandating increased movement a supports adaptive behavior construct, advocates, professionals, decision makers, aware of most current understanding conception, measurement, and that adequate problems concerning adaptive behind measurement concerns.areas and potentially directed be made adaptive behavior of these behavior across important because environmental and cross- they relate mental retardation behavior.Increasingly, viewed from functioning.Indeed, definition (Luckasson, et that the strengths and to the a better intelligence relate important because mental retardation.multifaceted conception both intelligence current opportunity into a multifaceted concep- four decades current changes changes include Stark, Snell, retardation not pressed solely interaction between approach requires better understanding significant role ones environ- and supports strengths and environments, and person- centered planning.actual functioning requires greater everyday living, ones environment.either separate central determiners such change has resulted include multiple dimensions ones successful reconceptualizing disability rather than decontextualized deficiencies.on Adaptive has been say, thank hopes that this creative endeavors related adaptive behavior measure adaptive multicultural environment.
her tireless commitment quality product her technical Association on manual on mental retardation.manual on Association on mental retardation: American Psychological intelligence testing movement around 1959, however, has been integral part Issues related to the changing conception its measurement seen a wide variety definitions and categories Association on Association on classification manual with which personal independence cultural groups significant limitations learning, personal and/or social responsibility or her cultural group, classification manual adaptive behavior concepts overlap take care the abstract potential most recent et al., operationally define definition: communica- self-care, home social skills, self-direction, health functional academics, leisure, areas are considered central to the relevant skills each adaptive age, assessment functioning should to the definition suggested social intelligence act notion (Luckasson et al., to the and sustain independent person social intelli- understand social other persons systems (including Psychiatric Association, 19941; International Classification of Diseases [World Health Organiza- best method adaptive behavior or deficits should retardation, and relationship between adaptive behav- issues that be exposed Nihira reviews adaptive behavior significant impact its measurement has had on mental retardation, especially since that the American Association on Deficiency revived adaptive behavior mental retardation.
that decade, behavior became professional practice establishing training goals mental retardation.significant shift consumer-referenced normalization ad
Abas technical supplement
Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Technical Supplement behavior-rating format to assess adaptive behathrough 89 years of age.Information on children information on adults can be provided by signififunctioning in ten related adaptive skill areas: communication, community use, functional academics, school/home living, health and safety, leisure, self-care, self-direction, social, ts and adults)
.These skill areas encompass the practical, function and meet environmental demands, including those needed to effectively and indeinformation: (1) a concept of adaptive skills promoted by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR, 2002; Grossman, 1983; Heber, 1959); Disabilities Education Act, 1997; the American Psychiatric Associations Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersFourth EditionProfessionals can use the ABAS to assess the level of functioning of persons who may have a variety of disabilities (e.g., Alzheimers disease, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorders, Autistic Disorder and other Pervasive Developmental Disordemotional disorders, neuropsychological disordphysical impairments).The ABAS is used frequently in the assessment of persons with mental retardation.In 1992, AAMR defined mental retardation as concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, safety, functional academics, leisure, and work.Mental retardation ma.
Overview of the (SFA) is used to measure a students performance of of an elementary school program (grades K6).It was designed to facilitate collaborativeor more school professionals who know the student well and have observed his or her been written in measurable, behavioral terms that can be used directly in the studentsThe SFA is comprised of three parts:Part IParticipation is used to examine the students level of participation in six majorPart IITask Supports effectively in an educational program.Two types of task supports are examinedPart IIIActivity Performance is used to examine the students performance of specificthat can be used to identify a students academic strengths and limitations, as well as his orcognition.However, school professionals recognize that effective school performance alsodepends on a students ability to perform a variety of functional tasks that enable him or herto participate in the various learning activities of the school day.
These functional tasks areincluded in an assessment of a students educational difficulties.
In many situations, efforts students special education program (AOTA, 1997).determine a students eligibility for special education services according to criteria establishedIndividuals With Disabilities Education Act an individualized education program that addresses the students specific needs.Norm-However, the results are not well-suited to guide program planning because they do notprovide enough information about the students specific skills.
For example, results of anage-level a student is performing.However, they do not convey precisely which of thestudents educational program to remediate the delay (Garwood, 1982).planning (Reschly, 1987, 1990).However, few instruments of this type have been available to assess nonacademic or functional skills.Typically, the skills required to perform these taskshave been assessed informally through observations, checklists, and other locally-developedprogram planning more systematically.
The SFA was designed for this purpose.refers to a students ability to performthe curriculum for a particular grade and whose primary purpose is to increase mastery oftargeted for direct instruction, the instruction is designed to support mastery of the academicin holding a pen or pencil correctly, so that he or she can complete written assignments asAdvantages of Using the SFA Instead of Users may ask when they should consider using the SFA rather than currently availableinstruments can be used to examine the students overall performance compared to his what extent features of the students physical and social environment may affect his or The SFA, in addition to examining the same content as most adaptive behavior assessments,information about the students functional strengths and limitations.The SFA providesseparate measures of the students current level of participation in school settings, perfor-tasks.
The content of the SFA enables you to examine all relevant areas of elementary schoolphysical or sensory impairments.The SFA is criterion referenced rather than norm referenced.The scales enable you to measurethe students functional performance relative to the overall continuum of function.
Inperforming below grade expectations, as needed to determine eligibility for special services.Rationale for the SFAemphasizes special education and related services to meet individual needs in the leastprograms, and (2) ensuring that educational programming and support services are effective.The SFA addresses both of these issues by assessing the students level of participation in parents, and related services personnel such as physical, occupational, or speech therapistsis charged with determining the specific individualized goals that will guide the studentseducational program.To identify the students needs and, later, to evaluate whether theThe SFA was designed to assist in the initial assessment of student needs and to evaluate theoutcomes of services provided, according to the guidelines of the federal legislation.
FeaturesConceptual Model of the SFAmay not cover the full range of functional skill acquisitionfrom very early attemptsthrough full mastery.In contrast, the SFA was constructed with the needs and specialIn the model of function underlying the design of the SFA, is recognized as a veryparticipation in the mainstream environment, to the ability to perform specific, necessaryinformation that is unique.To understand an individual students overall school function, special education and rehabilitation literature are used in the model for the SFA.The fourdifferent levels of the model are presented below in top-down order, from global to specific.The first three levels directly examine facets of function and are addressed in the SFA.TheLevel four is not addressed in the SFA (Brown, Branston, Hamre-Nietupski, Pumpian, Certo, &Gurenwald, 1979; Trombly, 1993; NCMRR, 1993; Coster & Haley, 1992; WHO, 1980).
Level ISocial Participationdiscriminatory policies, stigmatizing attitudes, or limited access to opportunities Level IITask Performancethat are a necessary or desired aspect of cultural and age-expected roles.A task is definedLevel IIIActivity PerformanceThe students ability to complete discrete functionalactivities that are necessary or valued components of his or her daily tasks.
Level IVBasic Structures and Processesbasic physical, sensory, social, and cognitive processes that underlie functional(This level of the model is addressed by such traditional measures as IQ tests,motor development scales, and tests of perceptual functions.)Several important features of this model were considered during the development of the SFA.Each level focuses on a different aspect of functiondictation or a computer.
Figure 1.1 summarizes the four levels of the model, the relevantassessment question for each level, and the SFA scale that addresses each le